Effects of Broccoli Seed Extract (Glucoraphanin / Sulforaphane) on Fatty Liver
IntroductionFatty liver is a common pathological change of liver, which is caused by excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes due to various reasons. Fatty liver disease is currently the most common lipid metabolism disease in the world. The incidence population tends to be younger and the pathogenesis is complex, which can lead to obesity and T2DM. Fatty liver is generally divided into alcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic fatty liver. Alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by long-term drinking in the world eventually leads to 3.8% of deaths due to liver damage. The prevalence of cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver is 20% to 30%.
ResearchesResearches showed that SFN can improve both alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver. The mechanism includes activating Nrf2 to reduce oxidative stress, increase the expression of certain proteins and inhibit lipid accumulation, and promote the browning of white fat. SFN can effectively improve acute fatty liver injury caused by alcohol, which is mainly manifested in the decrease of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (CHO) in liver homogenate. In HepG2 E47 hepatocytes cultured in vitro, SFN inhibited alcohol-induced lipid accumulation, which is related to the increased activity of Nrf2-dependent cytochrome enzyme P450 2E1. Similarly, SFN has a good protective effect on C57BL / 6 mice with acute alcoholic liver injury. SFN reduces liver oxidative damage by regulating relevant metabolic enzymes in mouse serum . In addition, SFN has a good preventive and protective effect on liver fibrosis. In a mouse model of chemical liver injury induced by nitrogen tetrachloride, SFN can alleviate the process of liver fibrosis by enhancing the expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant effects. In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 52 men with fatty liver were randomly divided into 2 groups. The experimental group took 30mg GRA daily for two consecutive months. The result showed that GRA can reduce oxidative stress and effectively improve liver function and reduce serum ALT/ GTP (hepatic function test value).【1】Sulforaphane induces Nrf2 and protects against CYP2E1-dependent binge alcohol-induced liver steatosis[J]. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, 2014.【2】Bao-Long L I , Shan Y J , Liu X , et al. Preventive Effects of Sulforaphane on Acute Alcoholic Hepatic Injury Model of C57BL/6 Mice[J]. Acta Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, 2017.【3】Ejm A , Sr A , Zr A , et al. Capsaicin and sulforaphane prevent experimental liver fibrosis via upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 - ScienceDirect[J]. Journal of Functional Foods, 2019, 52:382-388.【4】Kikuchi M , Ushida Y , Shiozawa H , et al. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects[J]. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2015, 21(43).